PhytoCore by Ortho Molecular Products
PhytoCore was created as part of the Core Restore Kit. The specialized blend of nutrients in PhytoCore has been shown to stimulate Phase I and II biotransformation and support the body’s natural liver cleansing function during detoxification. Each capsule includes silymarin (milk thistle seed extract), artichoke leaf extract, turmeric root extract, methionine, choline, inositol, garlic and dandelion root extract. These botanicals and plant extracts contain phytonutrients, antioxidants and other compounds shown to increase cellular defenses, up-regulate detoxification, and protect DNA.
The human body is exposed to a wide variety of toxins on a daily basis, including chemicals found in foods, environmental toxins and pharmaceuticals. The liver is the body’s main detoxification organ, and provides enzyme systems that safely process and remove xenobiotics and unhealthy hormone metabolites out of the body. These detoxification systems are very complex and require a variety of nutrients for optimal function.
There are two main pathways of detoxification in the liver, known as Phase I and Phase II. Phase I, composed mainly of cytochrome P450 enzymes, involves non-reactive compounds undergo specific reactions which use oxygen to form a reactive site on the compound. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized through Phase I biotransformation. This prepares the metabolite for the next step of detoxification, known as Phase II. Phase II is a crucial step- if molecules from Phase I are not fully metabolized by Phase II conjugation, they may cause free radical damage to proteins, RNA and DNA within the cell. Phase II reactions result in the biotransformation of fat-soluble compounds into water-soluble compounds that can then be excreted in the urine, bile or stool. PhytoCore’s botanicals and plant extracts contain phytonutrients, antioxidants and other compounds that naturally protect plants from environmental challenges including exposure to radiation, toxins and infectious agents. In humans, these biologically active compounds have been shown to increase cellular defenses, up-regulate liver detoxification pathways and protect DNA.[1,2]
Silymarin (Milk Thistle Seed Extract)†
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is an annual plant indigenous to Europe and the United States and has been used for centuries as a botanical medicine to support liver health. S. marianum contains silymarin, the biologically active component found in the seeds and leaves of this plant. Silymarin provides liverprotective effects via several mechanisms of action including inhibiting lipid peroxidation, supporting liver detoxification through enhancement of the liver’s glucuronidation pathways, and protection against glutathione depletion. Silymarin has been shown to increase hepatocyte protein synthesis resulting in enhanced detoxification function.
Artichoke Leaf Extract†
Artichoke is one of the oldest cultivated plants. The ancient Greeks and Romans considered artichoke to be a valuable digestive aid. In traditional European medicine, the leaves of the artichoke were used as a diuretic to stimulate the kidneys and as a choleretic to stimulate the flow of bile from the liver and gallbladder. Artichoke leaf extracts have been shown to provide antioxidant and liver support, including the maintenance of healthy cholesterol levels and the prevention of lipid oxidation. In a double-blind cross-over study in 20 subjects, artichoke extract was shown to increase bile secretion. Animal studies have shown that artichoke protected liver cells against oxidative stress and prevented loss of glutathione. [8-10]
Turmeric Root Extract (Curcumin)†
Curcumin, the active compound in turmeric, an orangecolored spice used for thousands of years in cooking and medicine, has been shown to support the body’s antioxidant and detoxification pathways. Curcumin elevates cellular levels of glutathione, one of the body’s major antioxidants that protects cells against free radical damage. Curcumin has been shown to increase glutathione S-transferase (a phase II detoxification enzyme), as well as the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase which results in a significant increase in a variety of antioxidant defenses. In a study examining the effects of curcumin on cells loaded with arsenic, curcumin effectively counteracted the effects of arsenic by increasing the activity of the primary detoxification enzymes SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase.
Garlic is a well-known spice with a number of healthpromoting properties. In addition to its cardio-protective and immune supporting effects, garlic also plays a role in supporting detoxification and antioxidant pathways. In an animal study, the effects of garlic on hepatic cells were examined following exposure to the toxic heavy metal, arsenic. Arsenic administration resulted in generation of free radicals, specifically reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused cell damage. The ROS generation in hepatic tissue reverted to normal values following the administration of garlic extract indicating the strong liver-protecting effect of garlic. 
Dandelion Root Extract†
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is a native plant to the United States and Europe, where the leaves and roots have been used as food and herbal medicine. The German Commission E and European Scientific Cooperative for Phytotherapy have approved the use of dandelion root to support hepatic and biliary function. Studies conducted in animals, have shown that dandelion root increases bile secretion as well as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and SOD. [14, 15]
Methionine and Choline†
Studies have shown that the nutrients methionine and choline play a significant role in supporting normal liver cell function. Methionine and choline act as lipotropic agents which aid in fat metabolism as well as mobilization of fat out of the liver. Studies using mice fed a diet deficient in methionine and choline were found to have increased fatty acid uptake and decreased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion. In a study examining the effects of choline in 60 men it was found that consumption of 550 mg of choline per day supported the health and function of the liver, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. 
Beet leaf (Beta vulgaris) has been used traditionally to help support liver function. Research has shown that beets are an excellent source of the nutrient betaine. Betaine acts as a methyl donor and supports the methylation detoxification pathway. Betaine assists in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine as well as increasing s-adenosylmethione (SAMe) levels. This prevents fat infiltration in the liver and protects against the free radical stress generated by toxic chemicals. 
2-3 capsules two times per day or as recommended by your health care professional.
Does Not Contain
Gluten, yeast, artificial colors and flavors.
Do not consume this product if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult your physician for further information.
1. Tuteja N, Singh MB, Misra MK, Bhalla PL, Tuteja R. Molecular mechanisms of DNA damage and repair: progress in plants. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2001;36:337– 397.
2. Huffman MA. Animal self-medication and ethnomedicine: exploration and exploitation of the medicinal properties of plants. Proc Nutr Soc 2003;62:371–381.
3. Bosisio E, Benelli C, Pirola O, et al. Effect of the flavanolignans of Silybum marianum L. on lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and freshly isolated hepatocytes. Pharmacol Res 1992;25:147-154.
4. Halim AB, el-Ahmady O, Hassab-Allah S, et al. Biochemical effect of antioxidants on lipids and liver function in experimentally-induced liver damage. Ann Clin Biochem 1997;34:656-663.
5. Campos R, Garido A, Guerra R, et al. Silybin dihemisuccinate protects against glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation induced by acetaminophen on rat liver. Planta Med 1989;55:417-419.
6. Sonnenbichler J, Zetl I. Biochemical effects of the flavanolignane silibinin on RNA, protein and DNA synthesis in rat livers. In: Cody V, Middleton E, Harbourne JB, eds. Plant Flavonoids in Biology and Medicine: Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structure-Activity Relationships. New York, NY; 1986:319-331.
7. Kraft K. Artichoke leaf extract - Recent findings reflecting effects on lipid metabolism, liver and gastrointestinal tracts. Phytomedicine 1997 Dec;4(4):369-78.
8. Kirchhoff R, Beckers CH, et al. Increase in choleresis by means of artichoke extract. Phytomedicine 1994;1:107-115.
9. Miccadei S, Di Venere D, et al. Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells. Nutr Cancer 2008; 60(2):276- 283.
10. Mehmetcik G, Ozdemirler G, et al. Effect of pretreatment with artichoke extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and oxidative stress. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2008; 60(6):475-480.
11. Zheng S, Yumei F, et al. De novo synthesis of glutathione is a prerequisite for curcumin to inhibit hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. Free Radic Biol Med 2007; 43(3):444-453.
12. Mukherjee S, Roy M, et al. A Mechanistic Approach for Modulation of Arsenic Toxicity in Human Lymphocytes by Curcumin, an Active Constituent of Medicinal Herb Curcuma longa Linn. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007; 41(1):32-42.
13. Flora SJ, Mehta A, Gupta R. Prevention of arsenic-induced hepatic apoptosis by concomitant administration of garlic extracts in mice. Chem Biol Interact 2009 Feb 12;177(3):227- 33.
14. Schutz, K., Carle, R. et al. Taraxacum--a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 107(3):313-323.
15. Park C, Zhou Y et al. Hepatoprotective effect of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against acute liver injury induced by Carbon tetrachloride in Sprague-Dawley rats. The FASEB Journal. 2007; 21:862-8.
16. Veenema K, Solis C, Li R, Wang W, Maletz CV, Abratte CM, Caudill MA. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load. Am J Clin Nutr 2008 Sep;88(3):685-92.
17. Barack AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Junilla M, Tuma DJ Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty infiltration. Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research 1993; 17(3):552-5.