The GI tract is a finely balanced environment where roughly
500 different strains of bacteria compete for space and
nutrients. When there is a healthy balance (eubiosis), few
symptoms exist. However, dysbiosis can occur when an
overabundance of potentially harmful organisms prevail.
The natural microflora balance can become disrupted by
medications (such as antibiotics, oral contraceptives, etc.),
excessive alcohol consumption, or poor dietary intake.
Probiotics have been extensively studied and are characterized
as having broad GI and immune benefits, including (1)
increasing the population of healthy bacteria following
microflora imbalance; (2) supporting healthy bowel function;
(3) increasing the production of short-chain fatty acids,
which provide energy to the cells of the intestinal lining; (4)
strengthening the gut-immune barrier by promoting a healthy
gut mucosa; (5) aiding in the digestion of difficult-to-breakdown
compounds like lactose and casein; and (6) enhancing
detoxification of harmful compounds.
Because probiotics are live organisms, there are many
challenges associated with manufacturing and distributing
probiotic supplements. For a probiotic to be effective, it must
be shelf-stable through the expiration date and precisely
delivered to the intestinal tract, where it can have maximum
benefit. The microorganisms in Probiotic 225 are protected,
sealed, and freeze dried away from moisture, heat, light and
oxygen. This allows the bacteria to remain dormant until they
are exposed to moisture in the GI tract.
Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-14)†
Lactobacillus acidophilus is a beneficial bacteria strain that
is normally found in the intestinal tract and mouth, and is
commercially used in dairy products for the production of
acidophilus-type yogurt. L. acidophilus ferments various
carbohydrates to produce lactic acid, which increases the
absorption and bioavailability of minerals, including calcium,
copper, magnesium and manganese. The production of
lactic acid also promotes health by creating an inhospitable
environment for invading microbes.1 L. acidophilus has been
shown to protect intestinal cells by competing for adhesion
space in the gut against harmful bacteria, such as E. coli. The L.
acidophilus strain in Probiotic 225 has been specifically chosen
because of its strong adherence and survival attributes in the
GI tract. It has been demonstrated in vitro to tolerate exposure
to gastric acid and bile salts, and has the ability to withstand
antibiotics including Ciproflaxin, Polymyxin B and Tetracycline.2
Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp-115)†
Lactobacillus plantarum is a beneficial bacteria commonly
found in fermented foods including sauerkraut, pickles, brined
olives and sourdough. L. plantarum has been found to compete
against strains of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens,
due to the production of bacteriocins (lethal proteins) that
inhibit bacterial growth.3
Studies have demonstrated that L.
plantarum helps boost the immune response by stimulating
Bifidobacterium lactis (BI-04)†
Bifidobacterium lactis is predominantly found in the colon. A
double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial on subjects
receiving B. lactis or placebo for eight weeks found that B.
lactis supported a balanced immune response in individuals
hypersensitive to environmental allergens.5
immune development and dietary supplementation with
B. lactis have shown that it supports GI health by reducing
Lactobacillus salivarius (Ls-33)†
Lactobacillus salivarius has been shown to produce bacteriocins
which inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori. It can withstand
high concentrations of acids allowing L. salivarius to adhere
and survive in the stomach and bind to gastric epithelial cells,
while producing high amounts of pathogen-inhibiting lactic
Lactobacillus casei (Lc-11)†
The immune-regulating properties of Lactobacillus casei have
been reported in several studies. L. casei has been shown to
regulate inflammatory pathways and reduce oxidative stress,
indicating an antioxidant effect.8
L. casei has also been shown
to support immune function by increasing natural killer (NK)
cell activity and support healthy inflammatory balance.9
Bifidobacterium bifidum (Bb-02)†
Bifidobacterium bifidum has been shown to effectively compete
with harmful bacteria such as E. coli, Staphyolococcus aureus
and Camplylobacter jejuni suggesting that B. bifidum’s lactic
acid and acetic acid production provides an antagonistic action
against pathogens to help maintain microflora balance.10
Larch arabinogalactan is a fermentable polysaccharide fiber
from the Larch tree that enhances immunity by supporting
the growth of beneficial gut microflora and strengthening the
activity of NK cells.11 It has been found to minimize ammonia
synthesis and absorption, enhance production of short
chain fatty acids and increase the population of beneficial
gut microflora. In one placebo-controlled, double-blind,
randomized trial, arabinogalactan was found to boost immune
activity and support upper respiratory health.12
1. Lipski E. Digestive Wellness. New Canaan (CT): Keats
Publishing; 1996. p. 60-61.
2. Danisco. Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 probiotic
3. Schoster A, Kokotovic B, Permin A, Pedersen PD,
Bello FD, Guarabassi L. In vitro inhibition of Clostridium
difficile and Clostridium perfringens by commercial
probiotic strains. Anaerobe. 2013 Apr;20:36-41.
4. Chytilová M, Mudronová D, Nemcová R, Gancarcíková
S, Buleca V, Košcová J, Tkáciková L. Anti-inflammatory
and immunoregulatory effects of flax-seed oil and
Lactobacillus plantarum - Biocenol™ LP96 in gnotobiotic
pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Res
Vet Sci. 2013 Aug;95(1):103-9.
5. Singh A, Hacini-Rachinel F, Gosoniu ML, Bourdeau
T, Holvoet S, Doucet-Ladeveze R, Beaumont M, Mercenier
A, Nutten S. Immune-modulatory effect of probiotic
Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 in individuals suffering
from seasonal allergic rhinitis to grass pollen: an
exploratory, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Eur J Clin Nut. 2013 Feb;67(2):161-7.
6. Lewis MC, Patel DV, Fowler J, Duncker S, Zuercher AW,
Mercenier A, Bailey M. Dietary supplementation with
Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 from weaning reduces
local immunoglobulin production in lymphoid-associated
tissues but increases systemic antibodies in healthy
neonates. Br J Nutr. 2013 Oct;110(7):1243-52.
7. Aiba Y, Suzuki N, Kabir AM, Takagi A, Koga Y. Lactic
acid-mediated suppression of Helicobacter pylori by the
oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic
in a gnotobiotic murine model. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998
8. Amdekar S, Singh V, Kumar A, Sharma P, Singh R.
Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus regulate
inflammatory pathway and improve antioxidant status in
collagen-induced arthritic rats. J Interferon Cytokine Res.
9. Dong H, Rowland I, Thomas LV, Yagoob P.
Immunomodulatory effects of a probiotic drink containing
Lactobacillus casei Shirota in healthy volunteers. Eur J Nutr.
10. Fooks LJ, Gibson GR. Mixed culture fermentation
studies on the effects of synbiotics on the human
intestinal pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia
coli. Anaerobe. 2003 Oct;9(5):231-42.
11. Kelly GS. Larch arabinogalactan: clinical relevance of a
novel immune-enhancing polysaccharide. Altern Med
Rev. 1999 Apr;4(2):96-103.
12. Riede L, Grube B, Gruenwald J. Larch arabinogalactan
effects on reducing incidence of upper respiratory
infections. Curr Med Res Opin. 2013 Mar;29(3):251-8.