What is Phosphatidylserine?
One of the main phospholipids in the brain,
phosphatidylserine (PS) is a fat-soluble phospholipid
used to support optimal endocrine and cognitive health.
Along with other phospholipids, phosphatidylserine is
an integral component of the basic structure of the cell
membrane. All play a critical role in ensuring the proper
function of numerous systems in the body, especially the
central nervous system. Studies using varying amounts
of phosphatidylserine highlight its benefits for cognitive
health. It has also been shown to enhance memory, learning,
and concentration, as well as support adrenal health. Each
soft gel provides 100 mg of purified, high-concentration
phosphatidylserine sourced from sunflower oil, making it
easy to achieve therapeutic dosing.
Found in high concentration in the brain, phosphatidylserine
plays a key role in neuronal energy production and
communication as a key structural component of the cell
membrane. Shown in animal experiments to have a trophic
(growth supportive) effect on the brain, PS plays a key role in
cell to cell communication in the brain, including the transfer
of biochemical messages into the cell, triggering cellular
responses. The proper functioning of these processes are
especially important to the nervous system and to healthy
cognitive function. PS has also been shown to support aspects
of cell metabolism, such as glucose utilization and enhanced
neurotransmitter formation. Furthermore, it appears to have
antioxidant activity, protecting the brain from free radicals.
Since very little PS is found in food, the compound must be
synthesized or supplemented to provide what is needed for
optimal brain health.
Studies of oral supplements of PS have shown it to affect
neuronal membranes and cell metabolism, as well as the
acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine
neurotransmitter systems.1-4 A body of research has highlighted
improvements in cognitive function and memory following
supplementation with PS.5-7 In one 12-week study of 30
elderly volunteers, PS supplementation significantly increased
cognitive parameters, including memory recognition, memory
recall, executive functions and mental flexibility. Total learning
and immediate recall also improved significantly. The same
study also found PS to support blood pressure already within
a normal range.8
PS supplementation has also been shown
to improve short-term auditory memory, inattention and
impulsivity in children.9
A 30-week study found a formula
of PS with Omega-3 may reduce hyperactivity symptoms in
children and may be especially effective in a subgroup of
hyperactive-impulsive and emotionally and behaviorallychallenged
children.10 Clinical trials have also shown PS to
significantly benefit memory, learning, vocabulary skills and
concentration.11 It also supports a balanced mood among the
elderly with a dosage of 300 mg a day, after 30 days.12,13
Endocrine Health and Stress Resilience†
PS has also shown promise in modulating stress-related fatigue.
Studies from Italy have shown that PS blunts the ACTH and
cortisol response to stressors, suggesting those experiencing
fatigue due to stress or overstimulation from elevated cortisolmay benefit from using oral PS to reduce this response.14 A
second study using the Trier Social Stress Test, (TSST) a
laboratory stress test which can test the response of humans
to a socially stressful public speaking situation, confirmed this
finding. After three weeks of a combined blend of phoshatidic
acids (100 mg PS), a statistical reduction in stress induced
ACTH production as well as serum/salivary cortisol production
was seen.15 Other studies on PS (50-800 mg) given to subjects
under stress (physical, emotional, mental, etc.), found it
reduced stress-induced excretion of cortisol.16,17
Administration of PS has also been studied in exercising
subjects, by giving higher levels of PS (600 mg) to blunt the
cortisol elevation resulting from intensive exercise. PS has also
been found to reduce the cortisol response to overtraining,
resulting in a reduction in muscle soreness and improved
1 soft gel capsule three times per day or as recommended by your
health care professional.
Does Not Contain
Gluten, corn, yeast, artificial colors and flavors.
Do not consume this product if you are pregnant or nursing.
Consult your physician for further information
1. Crook TH, Tinklenberg J 1. , Yesavage J, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology 1991;41:644-649.
2. Amaducci L, Crook TH, Lippi A, et al. Use of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s Disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1991;640:245-249.
3. Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano) 1993;5:123-133.
4. Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s disease Psychopharmacol Bull 1992;28:61-66.
5. Kato-Kataoka A, Sakai M, Ebina R, et al. Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010 Nov;47(3):246-55. [PMID: 21103034].
6. Richter Y, Herzog Y, Cohen T, et al. The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study. Clin Interv Aging. 2010 Nov 2;5:313-6. [PMID: 21103402].
7. Vakhapova V, Cohen T, Richter Y, et al. Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2010;29(5):467-74. [PMID: 20523044].
8. Richter Y, Herzog Y, Lifshitz Y, Hayun R, Zchut S. The effect of soybean-derived phosphatidylserine on cognitive performance in elderly with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:557-63. Epub 2013 May 21.
9. Hirayama S, Terasawa K, Rabeler R, Hirayama T, Inoue T, Tatsumi Y, Purpura M, Jäger R. The effect of phosphatidylserine administration on memory and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013 Mar 17.
10. Manor I, Magen A, Keidar D, Rosen S, Tasker H, Cohen T, Richter Y, Zaaroor-Regev D, Manor Y, Weizman A. The effect of phosphatidylserine containing Omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extension. Eur Psychiatry. 2012 Jul;27(5):335-42. Epub 2011 Jul 31.
11. Kidd PM. Phosphatidylserine; membrane nutrient for memory. A clinical and mechanistic assessment. Altern Med Rev 1996;1:70-84.
12. Brambilla F, Maggioni M. Blood levels of cytokines in elderly patients with major depressive disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1998;97:309-313.
13. Brambilla F, Maggioni M, Panerai AE, et al. Betaendorphin concentration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of elderly depressed patients – effects of phosphatidylserine therapy. Neuropsychobiology 1996;34:18-21.
14. Monteleone P, Maj M, Beinat L, et al. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992;42:385-388.
15. Hellhammer, J., Fries, E. et al. Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress. Stress. 2004; 7(2):119-126.
16. Benton D, Donohoe RT, et al. The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor. Nutr Neurosci 2001; 4(3):169-178.
17. Monteleone P, Beinat L, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology 1990; 52(3):243-248.
18. Kingsley M. Effects of phosphatidylserine supplementation on exercising humans. Sports Med 2006; 36(8):657-669.
19. Kingsley M, Miller M, et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006; 38(1):64-71.